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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  April 14, 2016 3:00pm-4:00pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llcpt >> woodruff: good evening, i'm judy woodruff.oouf on the newshour tonight, we examine the campaign ads more rules being broken in the 2016 2 presidential races. then, a chicago task force finds systematic racism in its police department, and calls for sweeping changes. and, one approach to fit the best financial advice on one index card. >> all the financial experts actually had a pretty simple set of things that they suggested that you do, and basically all of them would say tune out all the other stuff.a all that and more on tonight's pbs newshour.
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>> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:aj >> fathom travel. carnival corporation's small ship line. offering seven day cruises to three cities in cuba. exploring the culture, cuisine, and historic sites through its people.pe more at fathom.org. >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial future- >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. b ppp
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>> supported by the rockefeller foundation. promoting the well-being of humanity around the world by building resilience and inclusive economies. more at orlanellerfoundation.orgfe >> carnegie corporation of new york. supporting innovations in education, democratic engagement, and the advancement of international peace and security. at carnegie.org.uc, >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions: and individuals. wti >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. n n k you. >> woodruff: the democratic presidential contenders face another showdown moment tonight. hillary clinton and bernie sanders debate in brooklyn, just five days before the new york t
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state primary. meanwhile, donald trump's campaign manager, corey lewandowski, won't be tried for grabbing a reporter. a prosecutor in florida said today there's not enoughe' evidence to make a case of misdemeanor battery.m in the day's other news, the u.s. military announced new moves in the south china sea, in response to a chinese buildup. defense secretary ash carter said joint patrols with theth philippines navy are alreadyne under way. he was in manila for war games with the philippines military. and, he said the goal is not to be provocative, but to tamp down tensions. >> our efforts to do more together demonstrate america's unbreakable commitment to theo defense of this nation, the security and stability of the asia pacific, and the principles that have helped so many in thep region to rise and prosper. >> woodruff: the u.s. also plans to rotate more troops and warplanes through theth
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philippines. china criticized the moves as a challenge to its sovereignty and security.s on the trade front, china has agreed to scrap some of its export subsidies. the u.s. trade representative's office said today that beijing's decision affects specialty steel, agriculture, textiles and other sectors. washington says the subsidies let china flood the market with cheaply-priced goods. russian president vladimir putin sought to ease his country's economic jitters today, in his annual, televised, call-in show. putin took a number of questions from russian citizens that ranged from worries about stagnant growth to food shortages. t >> ( translated ): i hope and i am almost sure that this is a temporary situation and that step by step along with markets being filled with locally- produced food stuff, prices will be going down as well. >> woodruff: putin also warned
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the u.s. to abandon what he called "imperial ambitions" and" to respect russian interests. rescue workers in southern japan searched into the night for survivors after an earthquake toppled homes and killed at least two people. news footage showed a tv station's offices shaking violently on the island of kyushu. elsewhere, firefighters battled blazes set off by building collapses. there were new protests inte nigeria today over the fate of the so-called chibok girls.k more than 200 were kidnapped by boko haram militants two years ago today, prompting a worldwide campaign for their release. now, cnn has aired video of 15 of the girls, and jonathan rugman of independent televisioo news reports on the reaction.
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>> reporter: boko haram last filmed about half the group a knth into their kidnap. a rescue seemed possible after british and american aerial intelligence spotted a group in the forest but it was judged too dangerous for the hostages. i boko haram's commander demanded his fellow fighters' release from prison in exchange for the girls p two years on, a few of the chibok families and their supporters marched in the capital abuja still demanding answers from a government which claims negotiations are ongoing but which has told them almostha nothing. parents stunned by the release to the media of new pictures yet no release of the children r themselves. this the reaction of one mother after recognizing her daughter's school friends though her own daughter had not appeared.
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the campaign was global and led by america's first lady, though much of the world has moved on, here in the refugee camps of northeastern nigeria they cannot.ch boko haram roughly translates as "western education is i forbidden". while millions have fled, its would-be caliphate has killedav over 600 teachers and abducted around 2000 girls and boys. >> woodruff: the fate of most of the chibok girls remains a mystery. back in this country, microsoft isuing the federal governmentt over a law that lets investigators look at customer e-mails and files, without telling the customer. the company says it happened 5,600 times in 18 months. and on wall street, the dow jones industrial average gained 18 points to close at 17,926. the nasdaq fell a point, the s&p 500 added a fraction. and on the south lawn of the white house today, president obama and vice president biden welcomed hundreds of cyclists from the wounded warrior project. the annual event is in its ninth year. today's participants rode a lap around the grounds of the white house before heading out intore
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washington. the ride aims to raise awareness of wounded veterans and their abilities. v still to come on the newshour: how the 2016 presidential race is also breaking the rules of political advertising. chicago finds its police force guilty of systematic racism. financial advice simplified to fit on one index card, and much more. >> woodruff: now, we turn to politics, and our series looking at how this election differs from years past. tonight, we focus on ads: how candidates are communicating with voters, both in paid and free media.e there's nothing quite like the candidates meeting directly wite voters. but paid political ads on tv
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long ago became the way to reach more people than the candidates themselves ever could in person. the firm kantar media/c-mag keeps track of ads, and it reports total spending on spots for and about the candidates has topped $380 million so far this election season. that figure includes not just spending on ads by the candidates, but also that by outside supportive groups, so- called super-pacs. ironically, two unsuccessful candidates-- republicans jeb bush and marco rubio-- account for about a third of thisr season's total. while democrats bernie sanderser and hillary clinton have benefited from more than $175 million of ad spending together. >> i spent peanuts and i'm by far number one! i >> woodruff: but the most telling number may be 18 million; that's all donald trump has spent as he's sat
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astride the front runner position in the g.o.p. instead, trump has relied mainly on what's called free media: news coverage and social media like twitter. all of the candidates use twitter, but trump has made strategic use of tweets to get his message out: he has more than seven million followers. hillary clinton has nearly six million. there's also the extensive exposure they're getting from news coverage, primetime tv debates, and nationally televised town halls. this evening, for instance, ted cruz and john kasich will appear in televised town halls, and clinton and sanders debate in brooklyn. for more on how paid and free media are shaping the presidential race, we're joined now by elizabeth wilner, the senior vice president for political advertising at kantar media, and ken goldstein, political science professor at the university of san francisco.
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and we welcome both of you to the newshour. >> thank you. >> thank you. >> woodruff: so to listen to those numbers that we just heard, elizabeth wilner, you would think that paid advertising has not had the impact in this election cycle that it has in the past. how do you see it? >> well, donald trump has changed the dynamic. historically, paid advertising and the ability of candidates to raise enormous sums of money, that has helped to distinguish the front-runner, right, who has the most money to spend on tv. in this case, the candidate who has spent the least amount of money on tv and put the least effort into his tv advertising is the front-runner on the republican side. >> woodruff: how do you see it, ken? >> as elizabeth pointed out usually the rule in politics is follow the money but if you followed the money here you would get to right to rise two spent $75 million on behalf of jeb bush, who is not in the race anymore. so overall, it suggests it may not be having an impact, but what weac did see in
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wisconsin was a focused advertising-- >> woodruff: the wisconsin primary. a couple of weeks ago. >> the wisconsin primary a couple of weeks ago. a focused advertising effort along with some other things still can move numbers.rs >> woodruff: but when you look at that, elizabeth e wilner, and you look at the money that was spent earlier by-- even by the candidates who are no longer in the race, what did you learn from that this year? >> well, we learned that voters are looking for something that they clearly department see in the array of candidates who were out there early spending money on tv. there were a number of candidates spending a lot oflo money in iowa. none of them-- you know, they all dropped out early on. the candidates who were spending most money wound up having to drop out in february or march. what we saw was voters looking for something that they just weren't gettingge from the usual slate. >> woodruff: and is it, ken goldstein, that the messages weren't working?ki i'm not asking you to analyze what voters saw in every one of these spot, but was there something qualitatively different this
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year about what these candidates were saying in their ads? >> i think we're all guilty-- and i'm probably the most guilty-- of fallingng into the trap of countingg the bombs, looking at the targeting, how many ads, how much money was spent.. sp we forget the message matters. so, yeah, how much money you spend matters, how many ads you air matters, if you target it smart, that matters. but at the end of the day, if the message isn't compelling, the effect off that ad is still going to be zero. and i think that's what we saw in lot of these early primaries where, as elizabeth said, the message, even if brilliantly targeted and lot of money behind it, was either not crafted correctly or that's just not what the voters wanted to buy. >> woodruff: it does look like, elizabeth wilner, at least on the democratic side, some of the spots that hillary clinton and bernie sanders were using earlier, they're still using.. >> yes, they are repeating some of the same spot over and over again as they go from state to state. clearly, they have some
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favorites that they will is particularly effective. the ad narrated by morgan freeman for hillary clinton is aired over and over, and on bernie sanders, the america ad is played over and over. >> woodruff: how dove they know which are fiective? >> i assume they are poll testing. in sanders' case the america ad got a lot of social media pickup, so they determined that was an effective ad. >> woodruff: ken goldstein, we also mentioneded how much donald trump has used so-called free media. there is a way to quantify the value of that? when you think about the town hall meetings these candidates have done, the debates. is there a way to to look at the value of that versus the value of paid advertising?ng >> very difficult.. we clearly know it's more than the $18 million that he's actually spent. but it's call into news shows and calling into local news shows and national news shows and cable news shows, so it's absolutely in the hundreds of millions of dollars because, listen, one
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of the main reasones yes you use paid advertising is you folks in the media aren't talking about it, you have to get an ad to generate some media conversation. well, donald trump does not n seem to need that to generate conversation, to generate people talking about him and t his ideas. >> woodruff: all he has to do is tweet. >> all he has to do is tweet once. he probably gets more value out of one tweet than many of the candidates have gotten out of an ad this cycle. >cycle. >> woodruff: how do you see the difference between paid andoen free? can you quantify the value of free media versus news coverage and social media versus paid ads? >> well, it's really difficult, as ken said, to quantify the value of it. when wriewr doing paid media, at least you're controlling the message thatt is coming out.g so if you want all of your spots to be positive, they will all be positive.it if you want to spend some of your money on negative attacks you can do that. with earned media or free
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media it's a mix. it is what you get. and trump coasted on some fairly positive media for a long time. more recently, and in wisconsin, he was having to deal with more negative media and in the last few weeks, the coverage of him has been more mixed and more negative. what's interesting is he hasn't felt a need to spend any more on tv because of that but he may down the road need on start doing that. >> woodruff: go ahead, ken. >> i'm focusing on my old home state of wisconsin.ns i think that's an example of when it works. so it's not just paid media. it's not just earned media. but in wisconsin, what you had was free media, which was conservative talk radio, and on top of that you had paid tase advertising and on top of that you had candidates and their surrogates focused. when advertising works, it'st' often not a silver bullet, but it's when you have that echo chamber of messages. >> woodruff: what m do you say, ken goldstein, when people sayte it looks like paid advertising doesn't work anymore?re what do you say?
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>> it depends what you mean. there's big fundamental factors that are obviously moving this election that are going to move the general election. but if this race gets into field goal range or one or two or three percentage points, then focused television advertising can matter at at the margin. if this ends up being a 10% or 15% point race, no, it's not going to matter. interestingly, folks might be worried, "there's not going to be any advertisingsi in the presidential race because maybe it will be less competitive than we think." you will have more house andho senate races competitive and that money is going to havee to go somewhere and it's going to go on the air in those local races. >> woodruff: and we have to remember it's not justnd the presidential. elizabeth wilner, finally, if somebody says to you, "paid advertising is history," what do you say? >> oh, well, i can't laugh right now, but i would laugh. it's always effective at the margins, as ken has said,ing and in a close race treally does make a difference if it's done well. >> woodruff: because people who don't b see twitter and don't see the news media
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are going to be seeing other television and radio where these paid spots will be. >> that's right. and there will be a number of good portion of people in a close race at the end of the day who are not online looking for information, who are not following tweets, who are not necessarily watching the news, but they might be watching a baseball game or hockey game and they'll see an ad, and that might help change their mind or make up their mind. >> woodruff: that's what makes it all so hard to predict. >> yes.>> >> woodruff: elizabeth wilner, ken goldstein, we thank you.wi >> thanks. >> thank you. >> woodruff: next, a stinging report on police tactics in a city where civic tensions have been running high. john yang has our story. >> reporter: chicago has seen months of outcry aimed at the nation's third-largest police force. just this week, demonstrators marched after the latest fatal
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shooting of a black teen-ager. >> ingauging the community. now, after a four-month review, a "police accountability taskbi force" has delivered a damning assessment. >> many people said that they believe that the police they encountered were fundamentally racist.unst >> reporter: the report says the police department's own data gives validity to "the widely held belief the police have no regard for the sanctity of life when it comes to people of color." exhibit a: 74% of those shot by police in recent years were african american, even though blacks make up just a third ofup the city's population. it all came to a head last fall when police video showed a white officer killing black teenager laquan mcdonald in 2014. facing a firestorm, mayor rahm emanuel created the task force, and sacked the police superintendent.he >> thank you, sir. ( applause ) yesterday, the city councilnc
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unanimously approved chicago police veteran eddie johnson as the new superintendent. >> i promise the citizens of chicago, the elected officials and the rank and file police officers, i will do my best, my absolute best, to regain the trust, and resolve this violence that we have out here. >> reporter: both johnson and emanuel say they're now reviewing the task force's recommendations. >> yang: we're joined from chicago by lori lightfoot, who headed the task force thathe issued that report. she's a former federal prosecutor and the president of the chicago police board, an independent oversight agency. >> yang: lori lightfoot, thanks so much for being with us. pulled not really> punches. it said at one point that the community's lack of trust in the chicago police department is justified. j and we've seen that lack of trust on full public display. was there anything in what you learned assembling this report, anything that surprised you?
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>> well, i think nothing specifically surprised us, but the depth of the anger and the frustration across a wide demographic of folks, particularly within the african american community, really resonated with us. so i won't say it surprises, but it absolutely struck at the core of much of our thinking and how we knew we needed to move forward with some of the bolder recommendations that made its way into the final report. >> yang: sorry, go ahead.a >> no, go ahead.. i was going to say we heard from a real cross-section of folks -- doctors, lawyers, professionals, average working day folks -- that were speaking of their frustration, and with real personal experience about the way that they have been treated by the police displai at one point, the report asked how we got here, or how chicago and the chicago police got here. and a lot of it seemed to go to the attitudes of the officers on the street. you talked about in part
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racism. you talked about the mentality of ends justifying the means. a lot of the recommendationsns in this report-- and there are many of them-- go to policy changes, new procedures, new offices.es how do you get at, though, the attitudes of the cops on the street? >> well, look, i want to make-- be very clear that what we were reflecting is what we heard from the community. there are a number of police officers out there every day who do their job the right way. i hope that if our recommendations are adopted, that it will actually empower those officers who want to truly serve and protect, who want to have the support and resources of their supervisors, of the leadership of the department, so that they canan police in a way that is both effect and i have respectful and understands and reflects the nature of a true partnership with members of the community.ni and i think if we get to that place, and if the recommendations that we have made actually adopted, i actually think that this will empower police officers
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who are out there struggling and looking for leadership on a number of different issues, particularly in the area of training, in procedural justice, in cultural literacy. there are a number of other different things that we found that we pointed out that all go to engaging the community in fighting crime and addressing many of the ills that the police officers are called upon to address every single day. >> yang: we reached out to mayor emanuel's office today and the office told us what he's not going to be speaking on this for a while. he wants to digest it and read the report. i understand that the task force did meet with the mayor yesterday when you presented the report.r what did you take away from that meeting? >> well, what we took away is that he's going to take his own measure of the very detailed findings that we've made, the specific recommendations. this is a very dense document, and we dider a very deep dive on a range of different issues, and certainly, it was our
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expectation that he would take the time that he needed to both understand what we were saying, what the recommendations were, and then think when the best path forward for the city and for the department displai what are you hearing from the public and from the police department today? >> i think we're hearing a range of things.ra people have a diversity of views and reactions to what is in the task force in terms of the finding and its recommendations. i think we stood up in an environment in which there was tremendous skepticism about all forms of government, and certainly anythingly with with the current political structure.e. people told us time after time that they wished us luck, but they didn't believe it would really make any difference.ce and, frankly, what we've heard from a lot of folks that engaged us with that level of skepticism, is that they are pleasantly surprised by the way in which we addressed hard truths that reflected the things that have been said in many neighborhoods going back decades and that we
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presented a reasonable but bold and aggressive path forward. >> yang: that skepticism,ti all the recommendations require action either by the mayor, the city council, or the department itself. there's a justice department investigation. what do you think is going to happen? what do you hope is going to happen? >> well, what i hope is going to happen is the feeling in the community that really cuts across the entirety of chicago, thatgo this is a moment for bold action and for change, my hope is that, that sentiment in the community will help inform, frankly, the political stakeholders to empower them to do what is necessary to move the department forward. the police department is one of the moste critical and essential departments and institutions, really, in our city, as it is in all large urban areas. we need them to be successful in their mission because there are people in crime-ravaged neighborhoods who need thecr police every single day.ay and so, creating a path forward, speaking truth as to what has happened at an
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individual and institutional level was absolutelyy essential for us to be able to move forward.or but there is a path forward. and we need to focus on how we heal the rift between the police department and the communities that it's sworn to serve and protect.ct >> yang: lori lightfoot,fo thank you for joining us. >> my pleasure to be here. >> woodruff: stay with us, coming up on the newshour: the f.d.a. approves an additive in corn flour to protect women from birth defects. a bill legalizing physician- assisted suicide is introduced in canada.n- and screenwriter and actor danny strong on why writing should be based on passion, not experience. but first, it couldn't get any simpler: all the financial advice you really need can fit on a 4 x 6 index card. and, in the next eight minutes,
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our economics correspondent paul solman will fill you in and let you know what the secret is. it's part of our weekly 'making sense' report, which airs every thursday on the newshour. >> use fidelity's analytics to spot trends, gain insights and figure out what you want to do next. >> reporter: on tv, financial advice abounds. but the best advice is: ignore it. i >> hey, paul, come on in! >> reporter: so says university of chicago health policy professor harold pollack, who lives in flossmoor, illinois 20 miles from campus. about personal finance, until recently, he knew squat. >> i sort of figured it wouldre all work out, and i didn't have to think about it too much. and so i didn't. >> reporter: until, that is, he had to when, in 2003, his mother-in-law died suddenly, leaving her disabled son in the pollacks' hands. >> the expenses of caring for someone who is quite disabled, you know, are very frightening. when vincent moved into our home
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he was about 340 pounds, and we needed to get furniture that would fit him, and just one time we had to go out and just buy a recliner, and it was something like $900. >> reporter: and there were hospitalizations, medical bills. pollack needed advice. so he started reading. and had what he calls an 'epiphany.'ar >> all the financial experts actually had a pretty simple set of things that they suggested that you do, and basically all of them would say tune out all the other stuff. >> reporter: like the tv ads. so, to be useful to others, pollack started chronicling his financial education in a blog and in 2013, interviewed financial self-help writer helaine olen over skype. at one point, he said, offhandedly... >> the really good advice can fit on a 3x5 index card and isnd available for free in the library. i >> reporter: this time around, helaine olen joined virtually once again stuck at home with the flu. s >> then people began to write to harold and ask him to do an
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index card. >> reporter: so pollack put 10 items on an index card, took a snapshot and posted it online. it promptly went viral touted on the washington post's wonkblog, on websites boing boing and lifehacker. and thus was born pollack ands olen's short new book: "the index card." a few simple rules... >> and that just seemed much more doable to a lot of people. >> reporter: so, what's on the card? s rule one: "strive to save 10 to 20 percent of your income." which means slashing your spending on what you don't much care about. >> we've got some nice rust over here, also... >> there are other things that i do spend money on. i go on vacations, i go, i take, my wife to bruce springsteen, so, but i try to spend my money on things that i enjoy. and i really just am apathetic about my car, so i shouldn't spend money on it.ab >> reporter: though rule one is easier advised than accomplished, helaine olen acknowledges. >> i mean, how on earth are you supposed to save between 10 and
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20% of your income if you're making $20,000 a year? and the answer is you probably won't.e my position is, is that everybody is helped if at all possible to just even get a little bit of money aside.ey >> reporter: rule two: "pay your credit card balance in full every month." obvious, yet less than a third of americans follow this rule. >> one of the great things that you can do is try to pay cash more often for stuff. >> reporter: and if you must use credit cards... >> figure out the one that has the highest interest rate, and stop using that one, and pay off as much as you can on that credit card, pay the minimum on all your other credit cards, don't ever avoid a credit card payment.vo >> reporter: three: "max out your 401k and other tax advantaged savings accounts." to this day, only 12% of americans do this. when pollack started working, he wasn't one of them. >> it's too much trouble, it was boring it was, you know, it was something that was really far
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off in the future, and you know, the stock market was like one tenth of what it is right now, and boy, i wish i could have that back. >> reporter: rule four: "never buy or sell individual stock," because less than one percent of us have the ability to consistentlysi outperform the market. >> it turns out that theth individual people are not good at picking winners and losers in the stock market, and financial professionals aren't that greats at picking winners and losers, either. >> reporter: no matter what they tell you.te >> other people want to make friends, i'm just trying to make you some money.ie >> reporter: according to pollack, a pbs show from the '70s and '80s bears some responsibility for our faith ini stock picking. >> good evening, i'm louis rukeyser, this is wall street week.ui >> reporter: the show returned to tv on fox business news last month. >> they were pushing people away from what they should be thinking about, which is i'm not going to be able to pick which stocks are good, i shouldn't even try to do that, and what i really care about is what thee stock market is going to be in twenty or thirty years, not what it's going to be next year.tw >> reporter: or next week. or tomorrow.
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so rule five: "buy inexpensive, well diversified mutual funds and exchange traded funds." index funds. and hold them. >> many, many people believe that their financial advisor is free.i >> reporter: rule six is related to five, but more subtle: insist your investment advisor, if you have one, commits to a "fiduciary standard" putting the client first, instead of the "suitability standard," which requires no such commitment. to illustrate, pollack posted a video with cakes. >> thanks for sharing your cake, jim. it was 'suitable.' from now on, i'll keep my cake for myself. that's 'fiduciary.' if you put your money into sensible index funds and save for your retirement, and did everything properly, you'd end up with this whole cake. if you invested in basically th same types of investments, but
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the sorts of things that people recommend on the suitability standard, which have higher fees, you would end up with less cake. and there'd be this slice missing, which could be significant. >> reporter: that missing slice costs american investors about $17 billion a year in fees, say1 pollack. and just last week, the obama administration proposed a new rule that would hold all investment advisors to thisis higher standard. okay, let's zip through to the end.p rule seven: buy a home only when you are financially ready. >> you can stop going to starbucks, you can buy a cheaper car next time around. you can't do much about your 30- year mortgage. you're kind of stuck with that. and so it's important that in these big things, you know, thak you are appropriately modest in what you can afford. >> reporter: eight: insurance:ig make sure you're protected. >> get the largest deductible that you can.he you want your insurance for the $50,000 problem, not for the $500 problem, and you can save yourself a lot of money if you
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get a higher deductible on your homeowners and your auto insurance.ho >> reporter: nine, the most controversial on the card: do what you can to support the social safety net. >> reporter: to me it'sit incredibly important to appreciate that we all have to protect each other against some of the risks in life that would just crush any one of us if we had to face it alone. when vincent moved into our house, we would have absolutely been bankrupted without medicare, and medicaid, and social security, and all the programs that helped our family. >> reporter: and finally, 10: "remember the index card." >> the idea is you have to be methodical and stick to this, and you know, the advice that we give is good, but it's the execution that's really going to matter. >> pbs newshour, i'm paul
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solomon, here to tell n you if harold pollock and helaine olin are wrong, i've learned nothing over all this time. >> woodruff: a major health announcement in the world of infant health today, the fooh and drug administration said it would allow folic acid to beo added to corn-masa flour, a staple for many hispanic households, to prevent neural tube birth defects, such as spina bifida. the additive has been in wheatve flour since 1996, and is credited with preventing someti 1,300 birth defects a year. health advocates had petitioned for including folic acid in corn flour since 2012.li for more on all this, we turn to dr. jose cordero, he is professor of public health at the university of georgia, a former director of the national center on birth defects. he currently sits on the board of the march of dimes, one of
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the groups that pressed for the change. t dr. cordero, thank you for being with us. what's your reaction to this announcement? >> well, it was tremendous joy. this is just a tremendous occasion that finally, after 10 years of asking for having folic acid included in corn masa flour, finally, it's here. it is very important because right now, not only in hispanic households, but we all in the country are eating more tortilla chips than we are eating potato chips. so this is an important source of having folic acid that could help us prevent some very serious birth defects like spina bifida. >> woodruff: we talked about the number of birth defects that have been prevented by adding it to wheat flour.fl what difference do you think it's going to make going
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forward? >> well, the difference it will make is it will reduce the number of babies that are going to be born with spina bifida and encephly and serious neural tube defects. it will be maybe 40 or a year more, but it could be even more. but the important thing is we have known that folic acid can prevent these serious birth defects. i think. we are at a point where even one would be too many. >> woodruff: dr. cordero,or we know the company that makes so much of this corn flour already fortifies corn flour sold in mexico. but it is only now able to do it in the united states. how do you explain the foodoo and drug administration taking this long to mach it to-- to allow it to be fortified here in the u.s.? >> well, it is something that's hard to explain, but the food and drug administration follows some rules on how to process and
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apply even the citizens' petition. but i think the good pownt is finally it is here, and no longer we will have this contrast, and i will say disparity, where you can get corn masa flour in mexico and venezuela, and costand rica but not here. the company that makes this product, it was part of the group and will be getting this product into the market very soon. >> woodruff:n. well, the food and drug administration said the reason has to do with needing evidence, but as you say, the evidence has been there fore many years.s. i think it's hard for people to understand why so many years have been allowed toow go by, and why, presumably, youly know, women have been allowed to give birth to some babies with these birth defects and this hasn't taken place, and especiallyia in the hispanic community.ni >> yeah, that's the case.
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we have that among hispanics. the rate of these serious defects is about twice as high as it is in african americans or whites. so there's been a disparity. and the f.d.a. was asking for additional information, and thanks to march of dimes, we were able to get the studies done, demonstrate that in fact the product will continue to have sufficient folic acid through the shelf life, and i think that's what made the difference, and so glad that we could move forward and celebrate that actually corn masa flour, tortilla chips, or tortillas when you go to a mexican restaurant will have folic acid.d. >> woodruff: dr. jose cordero, now on the board of the march of dimes, we thank you. >> woodruff: today, canadian
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prime minister justin trudeau t introduced legislation to legalize physician-assisted suicide across canada. last year the canadian supreme court overturned a criminal banm against the practice, asking the-then conservative government here's another look at a story we aired last year.ye special correspondent john larson met the patient at the center of the court case.n >> my pain or discomfort is virtually constant. >> reporter: when medically assisted death was argued before the canadian supreme court, elayne shapray's statement wasem exhibit a. >> i cannot move, or turn over in bed. in effect, i am a prisoner of my own body. i no longer consider my life worth living, unless i also possess the means to leave it at the time of my choosing. >> reporter: shapray was a nurse, an active mother of two, until multiple sclerosis struck. now 68 years old, she can no longer do much of anything without help, including, and
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this is why she's exhibit a, take her own life. how far away are you from that point where you would no longer be able physically-- to end your own life? >> i can see it from here.ph >> reporter: the question of whether doctors should be allowed to help people likee elaine die was at the center of the canadian supreme court decision.na the court ruled: laws making physician assisted death illegal, violated canadians' constitutional rights in cases where an adult "clearly consents to the termination of life" and has a "grievous and irremediable medical condition". the most recent polls show 86% of the canadian general publicn approve. >> there's no question there'squ gonna have to be some serious thought about finding the right balance, but it is something whose time has come, it has to be. >> i think people do have the right to decide for themselves t about the end of their life, and how-- the quality of that.
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a patient's condition must be severe and incurable, but that's not the same as terminal. for example, what if a patient has severeen b arthritis? would they be eligible? or what if they're disabled or mentally ill? remember, she suffers from m.s., a debilitating but not life-ending disease.ea you're not in the end stage of a terminal illness.ss >> it's an interminable illness. >> reporter: interminable. >> how do you weigh that, how do you measure that unless you're sitting in my wheelchair? >>. >> reporter: well, it seems cleerp from what w the supreme court said you need not be terminally ill to qualify. >>y dr. will johnston, an outspoken opponent of physician-assisted death, said the court's liberal language, that the patient may suffer fromie an illness, disease, or disability, and that suffering is only defined as "intolerable to thele individual," leaves the
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door wide open for abuse. >> you do not even need to be physically ill.t because they specifically stated that psychological suffering would qualify as well. >> so what the court said wascd that-- the right to assisted dying should be available only in narrow circumstances. >> reporter: grace pastine, of the british columbia civil liberties association, which successfully brought the case to the supreme court, says the specifics of exactly who will be eligible for assisted dying have yet to be determined, but will likely be narrowly defined. >> the court made it very clear that physician-assisted dying would only be an option for individuals who are mentally competent and able to make a fully informed voluntary choice. i think, for example, someone suffering from a severe mentalr illness would not be able to qualify because they would not be able to meet the consent requirements.to
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still, opponents like johnston hope pain management, palliative care, will be sufficient forho most patients and doctors. >> we can do that withoutw turning our 2,400 years of-- of medical, ethical history on its head, without crossing that bright line between attempting to treat the symptoms of the patient and intending to kill the patient.l >> but many, many people do not, in fact, have that painless death., >> reporter: leslie laforest, was diagnosed three years ago with a recurrence of stage four anal cancer, although her cancer is in remission, she knows if it returns her death could be prolonged and painful. d >> i have absolutely the strongest will that i will notl go through that final chapter, whenever that comes. >> reporter: laforest testified in the case that went to the supreme court that current law would force her to take her life, early, while she could still do it herself, a point the court referenced in its decision. you want to walk down the black list for me?
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>> when the case went to the supreme court, lawyers requested elaine be given a special consideration, a waiver that would allow a doctor to end hertoem life while the government writes a new law. the court turned her down, meaning elaine will have to t wait a full year before a doctor can legally end her life. >> reporter: you feel like you have a year? >> i think i'd rather not answer that question. r >> reporter: for newshour, john larson in vancouver british columbia.orla >> woodruff: elayne shapray continues her fight against multiple sclerosis and opposes the proposed law saying it does not go far enough. >> woodruff: now in sports news, a big night in the world of basketball last night, with one team setting a new winning n
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record, and a retiring player going out in a burst of glory. jeffrey brown has the story. >> brown: 73 wins: that's what the golden state warriors achieved with a victory on their home court last night over the memphis grizzlies. they broke the record of the 1995-96 michael jordan-led chicago bulls, and they did in their trademark, sport-changingi style, most of all the incredible, long-range shooting of steph curry, who this season shattered his own record for three-point shots. meanwhile, in southern california: the final game of one of the sports greatest everv players: kobe bryant. 20 years in the league, five championships, the third all- time scorer, bryant made his final game a memorable one by scoring 60 points. here to talk about theseo historic milestones is andy glockner. he is co-founder and executive editor of the cauldron, a "sports illustrated"-affiliated
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website and author of the book "chasing perfection." welcome to you. you know, i don't think anybody thought that record would ever be broken. how hard is it to win that many games? >> oh, it's really, really hard to win that many games.s. i think it was dramond green one of the star of the warriors who put it really well who said they started the season 24-0 and had a bunch of other six- and seven- and eight-game winning streex and they still had to take it to the last night of the season to make it to 73. you don't have room in the schedule to make up for eight or 10 losses but they were able to do it last night. >> brown: you wrote a book called "chasing perfection" which is how one becomes a champion. when you look at this team, what makes for their success? >> i think there are a couple of t things.s. one is the other-worldly shooting skill and ball handling of steph curry. he averaged 30 point a game this season. he easily could be in a back-to-back most valuable player season for him, also
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the most improved player in the league.e. that shows you how great he was this year. and also their ability not just with dramond green, but the other players that have the ability of their size and athleticism to guard multiple positions and also shoot the ball extremely well. it makes them extremely formidable on both ends of the court. >> brown: you know, you used that word "other worldly" and it's still a game played by very, very tall men but they play a kind of smaller game and there's been a lot of talk about to whattent the warriors have changed the very game, right, the way it's played. what do you think about that? >> i think some people are viewing them as transformational. they are certainly not thein first teem to try to exploit the three-point shot to the degree that they have. they just happen to be extraordinarilily good at making it, especially curryod who shot 45% this year on almost 12 attempts a game which is a combination of volume and accuracy which we haven't seen from a guard in the n.b.a. in the
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three-point era. >> brown: the other discussion when you look at history is how thisu team would have matched up to teams in the past because there's been a lot of discussion about in the past it was t rougher, it was more defense minded. would they have been as great as they are now? >> i think they would have been because i don't thinkhi teams from 20 years ago would be able to adjust to their barrage of three-point shooting. but, also, when you look at-- they get compared alld the time to the 1996 bulls and michael jordan and pippin, that team probablyab could have defended them in a way with dennis rodman and ron harper as the other guard. they had the ability to go smaller in a way that a lot of the current peers of golden state don't really have on their roster. so it would have been a fascinating series and you get a senses m.j. would have had something to say about the results as well. >> brown: that's what we'd like to see. kobe bryant, okay. a legend retires. he was always known as more competitive than any competitor, right, and he goes outnd with a very loud bang with 60 point..
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>> remarkable, fascinating night of television last night for sports fans, basketball lovers. kobe dropping 60, and on 50 field goal attempts really was the perfect capper to his amazingly successful and oftentimes polarizing career. he did it his way to the very end and provided a show to the last second of his final game. it was just remarkable. it was some of the most fun i've had watching regular season basketball in i don't know how long, just a really remarkable evening.ng >> brown: amazing and polarizing career. you put itca well. how would you sum up his legacy, where he stands?s? >> i think it's complicatedded. i think it's one of the weird case where's you have o a player that's probably iny the mix for top 10 all-time. some people would argue higher than that, some people maybe a few spots lower. a guy of that caliber, with five championships, the third all-time leading scorer in n.b.a. history,is all the play-off success that he had, but did it at times in a way that almost seemed self-defeat or
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self-limiting and shared some of the bestnd moments he had in a lot of ways with coach jack sop or shaquille o'neal, another all-time great player. there's a lot to chew on when you look at the legacy of kobe bryant and what you're going to remember. and i think it's apt in a way last night's performance might be one of the most vivid memories people take away from coab's career because he department have a lot of individual signature moments, unlike a michael jordan. >> brown: all right, bigig night in basketball and in sports. andy glockner, thanks so much. >> thank you very much. >> woodruff: finally, another installment in our brief but spectacular series. tonight, we hear from actor and writer danny strong. he's written such films as "the butler," hbo's "recount," "game change," and the popular fox tv series "empire" which he co- created.
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strong is about to direct a feature film called "rebel in the rye" starring kevin spacey, which he also wrote. s >> i think there's a common saying that to write what you know, and i think that, that is good advice for an amateur writer. for a professional riert writer, they should write s what they're passionate about. ♪ ♪ when i was a full-time actor, my entire existence was based on waiting for my agent to call. i wrote a script for me to star in as an actor, which is a very common thing in hollywood, and it was going to turn me into the sylvester stallone of my time. i was convinced that this was my "rocky." i gave it to a few producer friends and they read it and they all said the same thing, "we really love this. can we try and get this movie made without you attached?" i thought, "no, this is my 'rocki'." by the way, that film still has never been made so probably not the best
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decision. i had written several scripts over several years and these scripts were all really high-concept comedies like "liar, liar," or "bruce awl night mighty" because those were the movies that were really big hits at that time. nobody would buy them, let alone make the movie, and after five years of that i started to get pretty despondent. i realized that i was writing movies that i would never go see, and i decided literally in that moment that i was not going to write another script unless it was a movie that i would actually want to go see. and i went to go see this play called "stuff happens," about the buildup to the iraq war. seeing the audience respond to this play, i thought to myself, this is why i went into the arts in the first place. and within 30 seconds of me making that decision, the idea of the florida recount popped into my head, and lo and behold, four months later i find myself at hbo in the lobby ready to go pitch the president of the hbo films. and i'm sitting with my
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producer, and i said to him, "i can't believe that i actually made it here, that i'm actually in the lobby of hbo about to pitch this project." and he looked at me and hee said, "it's a better story if you sell it." every script i've written "recount," "game change," "the butler,"an "empire," all of those projects had nothing to do with my life so, i have no insider knowledge, i have no professional background. they all have the sameac thing in common, which is i'm really interested and passionate about the subject matter. my name is danny strong and that was by brief but spectacular take on writingi what you don't know. >> woodruff: you can watch more brief but spectacular videos on our website. that's at pbs.org/newshour/brief. on the newshour online, we're in the midst of a competition to build the world's tallest building, with two towers expected in the coming years that will upstage dubai's famous burj khalifa, but according to history, a race to the top is
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often a sign of overconfidence, and that an economic bubble isn about to burst. read today's making sense column, on our home page, and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online, and again here tomorrow evening, with mark shields and david brooks. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night.onto gh >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your financial futureo
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>> the lemelson foundation. committed to improving lives through invention. in the u.s. and developing countries. on the web at lemelson.org. lh . >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. mrpadst captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh access.wgbh.org or
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america. >> funding of this presentation is made possible by the freeman foundation, newman's own foundation, get a nonprofit to charity in pursuing the common good. kohler foundation. it national geographic channel. always been fascinated by god. why do people all around the world worship their god? i'm setting off on a journey.

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